Process Improvement Engineering, Consultants and Engineers An Affiliate of:
PROCESS CHEMICALS, INC
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Email: norm@lieberman-eng.com

LIEBERMAN BOOKS

workingguide

By Norman P. Lieberman and Elizabeth T. Lieberman

A WORKING GUIDE TO PROCESS EQUIPMENT

FOURTH EDITION PUBLISHED BY: McGRAW-HILL
ISBN 978-0-07-182806-2

CONTENTS

Chapter 1. Process Equipment Fundamentals : Fictional Losses / Density Difference Induces Flow / Natural Thermosyphon Circulation / Reducing Hydrocarbon Partial Pressure  / Distillation - First Application / Origin of Reflux / Glossary
Chapter 2. Basic Terms and Conditions
Chapter 3.

How Trays Work- Flooding : History of Distillation /Tray types / Tray Efficiency / Downcomer Backup / Downcomer Clearance / Vapor-Flow Pressure Drop / Jet Flood / Incipient Flood / Tower Pressure Drop & Flooding / Optimizing Feed Tray Location / Catacarb CO2  Absorber Flooding

Chapter 4. How Trays Work- Dumping -Weeping through Tray Decks : Tray Pressure Drop / Other Causes of Tray Inefficiency / Bubble-Cap Trays / New High Capacity Trays / Calculating Tray Efficiency 
Chapter 5. Notes on Tray Design Details : Process Design Equipment Details
Chapter 6.

Why Control Tower Pressure - Options for Optimizing Tower Operating
Pressure :
Selecting an Optimum Tower Pressure / Raising Tower Pressure Target /  Lowering Tower Pressure / The Phase Rule in Distillation

Chapter 7. What Drives Distillation Towers - Reboiler Function : The Reboiler / Heat-Balance Calculations
Chapter 8. How Reboilers Work - Thermosyphon, Gravity Feed, and Forced : Thermosyphon Reboilers / Forced-Circulation Reboilers / Kettle Reboilers / Fouling / Vapor Binding in Steam Reboilers
Chapter 9.

Inspecting Tower Internals : Tray Deck Levelness / Loss of Downcomer Seal Due to Leaks / Effect of Missing Caps / Repairing Loose Tray Panels / Improper Downcomer Clearance / Inlet Weirs / Seal Pans / Drain Holes / Vortex Breakers / Chimney Tray Leakage / Shear Clips / Bubble-Cap Trays / Final Inspection

Chapter 10.

How Instruments Work - Levels, Pressures, Flows, and Temperatures : Level / Foam Affects Levels / Pressure / Flow / Temperature

Chapter 11.

Packed Towers; Better than Trays? (Packed-Bed Vapor and Liquid Distribution) : How Packed Towers Work / Maintaining Functional & Structural Efficiency in Packed Towers / Advantages of Packing vs. Trays

Chapter 12. Steam and Condensate Systems (Water Hammer and Condensate Backup, Steam-Side Reboiler Control) : Steam Reboilers / Condensing Heat Transfer Rates / Maintaining System Efficiency / Carbonic Acid Corrosion / Condensate Collection Systems / Deaerators / Surface Condensers
Chapter 13. Vapor Lock and Exchanger Flooding in Steam Systems : Function of a Steam Trap / Non-condensable Venting / Corrosive Steam / Condensate Drum / Condensate Drainage & Vapor Lock / Elevated Condensate Collection Drum
Chapter 14.

Bubble Point and Dew Point (Equilibrium Concepts in Vapor-Liquid Mixtures) : 
Bubble Point / Dew Point

Chapter 15. Steam Strippers (Source of Latent Heat of Vaporization) : Heat of Evaporation / Stripper Efficiency
Chapter 16.

Draw-Off Nozzle Hydraulics (Nozzle Cavitation Due to Lack of Hydrostatic
Head) :
Nozzle Exit Loss / Critical Flow / Maintaining Nozzle Efficiency / Overcoming Nozzle Exit Loss Limits

Chapter 17.

Pumparounds and Tower Heat Flows (Closing the Tower Enthalpy Balance) : The Pumparound / Vapor Flow / Fractionation

Chapter 18. Condensers and Tower Pressure Control (Hot-Vapor Bypass: Flooded Condenser Control) : Subcooling, Vapor Binding, and Condensation / Pressure Control
Chapter 19. Air Coolers (Fin-Fan Coolers) : Fin Fouling / Fan Discharge Pressure / Effect of Reduced Air Flow / Adjustments  & Corrections to Improve Cooling / Designing for Efficiency
Chapter 20.

Thermodynamics ( How it Applies to Process Equipment) : Why is Thermodynamics Important to the Plant Operator / The source of Steam Velocity / Converting Latent Heat to Velocity / Effect of Wet Steam / Steam Ejector Temperature Profile / Roto-Flow Turbo Expander / The Meaning of Entropy

Chapter 21.

Deaerators and Steam Systems (Generating Steam in Boilers and BFW
Preparation) :
Boiler Feedwater / Boilers / Convective Section Waste-Heat Steam Generation

Chapter 22. Steam Generation : Boiler Blowdown Rate / types of Steam-Generating Equipment / Boiler Feedwater Preparation / effect of Air Preheat on Boiler Capacity / Deaerator Operation / Boiler Feedwater Preheat / Boiler Thermal Efficiency / Sloped Demister
Chapter 23.

Vacuum Systems: Steam Jet Ejectors : Theory of Operation / Converging & Diverging Compression / Calculations, Performance Curves & Other Measurements in Jet Systems / Optimum Vacuum Tower-Top Temperature / Measurement of a Deep Vacuum without Mercury

Chapter 24. Steam Turbines (Use of Horsepower Valves and Correct Speed Control) : Principle of Operation & Calculations / Selecting Optimum Turbine Speed
Chapter 25.

Surface Condensers (The Condensing Steam Turbine) : The Second Law of Thermodynamics / Surface Condenser Problems / Surface Condenser Heat-Transfer Coefficients

Chapter 26. Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers : Heat-Transfer Fouling Resistance : Allowing for Thermal Expansion / Heat-Transfer Efficiency / Exchanger Cleaning /  Mechanical Design for Good Heat Transfer / Importance of Shell-Side Cross Flow / References
Chapter 27.

Heat Exchanger Innovations : Smooth High Alloy Tubes / Low-Finned Tubes / Sintered Metal Tubes / Spiral Heat Exchangers / Tube Inserts / Twisted Tubes & Twisted Tube Bundle / Helical Tube Support Baffles / Reference

Chapter 28. Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers; Design Details : Selecting the Process Location / Design the Shell side for Ease of Cleaning
Chapter 29.

Fired Heaters: Fire-and Flue-Gas Side (Draft and Afterburn; Optimizing Excess
Air) :
Effect of Reduced Air Flow / Absolute Combustion / Draft / Air Leakage / Efficient Air – Fuel Mixing / Optimizing Excess Air / Air Preheating/  Lighting Burners

Chapter 30. Fired Heaters: Process Side (Coking Furnace Tubes and Tube Failures) : Process Duty versus Heat Liberation / Heater Tube Failures / Flow in Heater Tubes / Low-NOx Burners / Tube Fire-Side Heaters
Chapter 31.

Refrigeration Systems (An Introduction to Centrifugal Compressors) : Refrigerant Receiver / Evaporator Temperature Control / Compressor & Condenser Operation / Refrigerant Composition

Chapter 32.

Cooling Water Systems : Locating Exchanger Tube Leaks / Tube-Side Fouling / Changing Tube-Side Passes / Cooling Tower pH Control / Wooden Cooling Towers / Back-Flushing and Air Rumbling / Acid Cleaning / Increasing Water Flow / Piping Pressure Losses / Cooling Tower Efficiency / Wet Bulb Temperature

Chapter 33.

Catalytic Effects - Equilibrium and Kinetics : Kinetics vs. Equilibrium / Temperature vs. Time / Purpose of a Catalyst / Zero Order Reactions / Runaway Reaction / Common Chemical Plant and Refinery Catalytic Processes

Chapter 34.

Centrifugal Pumps: Fundamentals of Operation (Head, Flow, and Pressure) : Head / Starting NPSH Requirement / Pressure / Pump Impeller / Effect of Temperature on Pump Capacity

Chapter 35.

Centrifugal Pumps: Driver Limits (Electric Motors and Steam Turbines) : Electric Motors / Steam Turbines / Gears

Chapter 36.

Centrifugal Pumps: Suction Pressure Limits (Cavitation and Net Positive Suction Head) : Cavitation & Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) / Sub-atmospheric Suction Pressure

Chapter 37. Centrifugal Pumps - Reducing Seal and Bearing Failures : A Packed Pump / Mechanical Seal / Purpose of Seal Flush / Seal Leaks / Wasting External Seal Flush Oil / Double Mechanical Seal / Dry Seals / Application of Nitrogen Barrier Seals Using Double Mechanical Seals / Steam Use in Seal Chamber / Pressure Balancing Holes / Bearing Failures / Starting a Centrifugal Pump
Chapter 38.

Control Valves : Pumps and Control Valves / Control Valve Position / Valve Position Dials / Air-to-Open Valves / Saving Energy in Existing Hydraulic Systems / Control Valve Bypasses / Plugged Control Valves

Chapter 39.

Separators: Vapor-Hydrocarbon-Water (Liquid Settling Rates) : Gravity Settling / Demisters / Entrainment Due to Foam / Water-Hydrocarbon Separators / Electrically Accelerated Water Coalescing / Static Coalescers

Chapter 40.

Gas Compression: The Basic Idea (The Second Law of Thermodynamics Made
Easy) :
Relationship between Heat and Work / Compression Work (Cp - Cv)

Chapter 41.

Centrifugal Compressors and Surge (Overamping the Motor Driver) : Centrifugal Compressor Surge / Compressor Efficiency / Frequently Asked Questions about Centrifugal Compressors

Chapter 42.

Reciprocating Compressors (The Carnot Cycle; Use of Indicator Card) : Theory of Reciprocating Compressor Operation / The Carnot Cycle / The Indicator Card / Volumetric Compressor Efficiency / Unloaders / Rod Loading / Variable Molecular Weight

Chapter 43.

Compressor Efficiency (Effect on Driver Load) : Jet Engine / Controlling Vibration and Temperature Rise / Relative Efficiency / Relative Work – External Pressure Losses

Chapter 44. Safety Concerns (Relief Valves, Corrosion, and Safety Trips) : Relief-Valve Plugging / Relieving to Atmosphere / Corrosion Monitoring / Alarms and Trips / Auto-ignition of Hydrocarbons / A Hazardous Piping Configuration / Paper Gaskets / Calculating Heats of Reaction / Hot Water Explodes Out of Manway
Chapter 45. Relief Valve System Design : Coke Drums / High-Pressure Fixed-Bed Reactors / Trayed Towers and Packed Columns / Liquid-Filled Vessels / Sour Water Strippers / Protecting Relief Valves from Fouling and Corrosion / Dual Relief Valves / Process Design Responsibility for Relief Valve Design / Relief Valve and Pressure-Sensing Connections / Heat Exchanger Safety Reliefs / Relief Valve Effluents / Maintaining Flare Header Positive Pressures / Leaking Relief Valves / Tray Failure Due to Relief Valves / Piper Alpha Rig Destruction
Chapter 46. Corrosion - Process Units : Erosive Velocities / Mixed Phase Flow / Carbonate Corrosion / Naphthenic Acid Attack / A Short History of Corrosion / Corrosion - Fired Heaters / Oil-Fired Heaters / Finned-Tube Corrosion / Field Identification of Piping Metallurgy
Chapter 47. Waste Water Strippers : Purpose of Sour Water Strippers / Two-Stage Sour Water Stripper / Tray Efficiency / Computer Simulation and Theoretical Tray Efficiency / Use of Caustic to Improve Stripping / Water Stripper Reboiler Corrosion and Fouling / Ballast Water Stripper 
Chapter 48. Fluid Flow in Pipes (Basic Ideas to Evaluate Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Flow) : Field Engineer’s Method for Estimating Pipe Flow / Field Pressure Drop Survey / Line Sizing for Low-Viscosity and Turbulent Flow / Frictional Pressure Loss in Rough and Smooth Pipe / Special Case for Laminar Flow / Smooth Pipes and Turbulent Flow / Very Rough Pipes and Very Turbulent Flow / Non-Newtonian Fluids / Some Types of Flow Behavior / Viscoelastic Fluids / Identifying the Type of Flow Behavior / Apparent and Effective Viscosity of Non-Newtonian Liquids / Generalized Reynolds Numbers
Chapter 49. Super-Fractionation Separation Stage : First encounter with Super-Fractionation / Kettle Reboiler / Partial Condenser / Side Reboilers and Intercoolers
Chapter 50. Hand Calculations for Distillation Towers (Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, Absorption, and Stripping Calculations) : Introduction / Bubble Point and Dew Point Calculations / The Absorption Factor or Stripping Factor Chart
Chapter 51. Computer Modeling and Control : Modeling a Propane-Propylene Splitter / Computer Control / Material Balance Problems in Computer Modeling
Chapter 52. Field Troubleshooting Process Problems : De-ethanizer Flooding / Elements of Troubleshooting / Field Calculations / Troubleshooting Tools / Field Measurements / Troubleshooting Methods 
GLOSSARY  

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