Process Improvement Engineering, Consultants and Engineers An Affiliate of:
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Email: norm@lieberman-eng.com

LIEBERMAN BOOKS

pemalfunctions

By Norman P. Lieberman

TROUBLESHOOTING VACUUM SYSTEMS:
Steam Turbine Surface Condensers and Refinery Vacuum Towers

FIRST EDITION PUBLISHED BY: WILEY SCRIVENER
ISBN 978-1-118-29034-7

CONTENTS

Chapter 1. How Jets Work: The Converging-Diverging Ejector / Interaction of Steam Nozzle with Converging-Diverging Diffuser / Compression Ratio / Converging-Diverging Ejector /Velocity Boost / Surging / Critical Discharge Pressure / Observing the Conversion of Heat to Velocity / Jet Discharge Pressure / Reducing Primary-Jet Discharge Pressure / Bypassing First Stage Ejectors
Chapter 2. Making Field Measurements: Getting Started / How to Unscrew Steel Plugs / Effect of Barometric Pressure on Indicated Vacuum / Use of Piccolo / Measuring Deep Vacuums using an Hg Manometer / Measurement of Deep Vacuum without Mercury / Measuring Condensibles in Feed to First Stage Ejector / Identifying Loss of Sonic Boost by Sound / Identifying Air Leaks / Air Leaks in Flanges / Vacuum Measurement Units
Chapter 3.

Tabulation of Vacuum System Malfunctions: Tidal Flop Delaware / Critical Discharge Pressure / Fouling in Final Condenser / Reduction in Back Pressure / Loss of LVGO Pan Level / Variations in Cooling Water Temperature / Multi-Component Malfunctions / Partial Tabulation of Vacuum System Malfunctions

Chapter 4. Effect of Water Partial Pressure on Jet Efficiency: Vapor Pressure of Water Limits Vacuum / Reminder about Water Partial Pressure / Air Leaks in Steam Turbine Surface Condensers / Variable Cooling Water Temperature / Loss of Sonic Boost / Relative Jet Efficiency / Definition of “Vacuum Breaking” / Critical Discharge Pressure Exceeded
Chapter 5. Air Leaks: Upper Explosive Limits / How to Find Air Leaks / Diffuser Air Leaks / Air Leaks on Vacuum Towers / Air Leaks in Heater Transfer Lines / Air Leaks – Turbine Mechanical Seal
Chapter 6.

Sources and Disposal of Hydrocarbon Off-Gas: Evolution of Cracked Gas / Sources of Cracked Gas / Cracked Gas Evolution from Boot / Air Equivalent / Overloading Vacuum Jets / Excess Cracked Gas Flow / Field Checking Gas Flow Meter in Vacuum Service / Surging 3rd Stage Jet Bogs Down Primary Jet / Exchanger Leaks Overloads Jets / Poor Vacuum Tower Feed Stripping / Level Connection Purges and Pump Mechanical Seal Gas / Effect of Heater Outlet Temperature / Extracting H2S from Vacuum Tower Off-Gas Upstream of Ejectors / Disposal of Seal Drum Off-Gas / Fouling of Waste Gas Burner

Chapter 7. Motive Steam Conditions: Effect of Wet Steam / Water in Motive Steam / The Tale of Weak Steam / Internal Freezing of Steam Nozzle / High Pressure, Superheated Motive Steam / Effect of Moisture Content of Saturated Steam on Temperature / Steam Pressure Affects Vacuum / Effect of Superheated Steam
Chapter 8. Mechanical Defects of Ejectors: Steam Nozzle Testing / Other Mechanical Defects of Jets / Fouled Steam Nozzles / Diffuser Erosion / Repair of Ejector Body / Changing Worn Steam Nozzles / Restoring Critical Flow
Chapter 9.

Condenser Fouling and Cleaning: Fouling Mechanism in Condensers for Refinery Vacuum Towers / Fouling Due to Chemical Additives / Minimizing Condenser Fouling in Vacuum Towers / Fouled Pre-Condenser / Fixed Tube Sheet Condensers /  Cleaning Condensers on-Stream / Optimum Condenser Bundle Configuration / Chemically Cleaning Condensers / Ball Cleaning Condenser Tubes / Corrosion Control by Better Desalting

Chapter 10.

Pressure Control of Vacuum Towers:Positive Feedback Loop

Chapter 11.

Condenser Cooling Water Flow: Cooling Water Flow Configuration / Air Evolving from Cooling Water Reduces Cooling Water Flow / Cooling Water Pressure to Surface Condensers / Tube Leaks

Chapter 12. Condensate Back-Up in Condensers: Undersized Condenser Drain Nozzle / Seal Drum Level Indication / Leaking Gauge Glass on Surface Condenser Boot / Condensate Pump Cavitation Due to Air Leaks / Condensate Back-Up in Surface Condenser Boot / Experiment with Condensate Back-Up / Condensate Back-Up
Chapter 13. Seal Leg Drainage: Sludge Accumulation in Seal Drum / Seal Leg Leak Inside Seal Drum / Seal Leg Flange Leak Outside Seal Drum / Seal Leg Design / Inadequate Seal Leg Length for Hydrocarbons /  Inadequate Seal Leg Capacity / High Back-Pressure from Seal Drum / Detecting Condensate Back-up in Seal Legs / Condensate Back-Up Due to Air Leak in Barometric Drain Line / Seal Drum Design / Seal Drum Fills with Corrosive Deposits / Seal Drum Design Tips / An Unfortunate Incident
Chapter 14.

Other Types of Vacuum Equipment: Hogging Jets / Use of Hogging Jet on Surface Condenser / Liquid Seal Ring Compressors / Gas Ejectors / Liquid Ejectors / Ejector Compression Efficiency

Chapter 15. Air Baffle and Impingement Plate in Surface Condensers:  Mechanical Configuration of Seal Strips / Corroded Brass Seal Strips / Air or Vapor Baffle Leak / Identifying Defective Seal Strips / Air Baffle Clearance / Fouling Mechanism in Vacuum Tower Surface Condensers / Surface Condenser Impingement Plate / Impingement Plates as Vapor Distributors
Chapter 16.

Optimizing Vacuum Tower Operation: Steam to Heater Passes / LVGO Pan Level Loss Causes a Loss in Vacuum / Carry-Over of LVGO Pumparound Spray / Optimizing Vacuum Tower Top Temperature / Plugged Vacuum Tower Top Demister / Bypassing Primary Ejector

Chapter 17.

Frequently Asked Questions:  Vacuum Systems


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