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PROCESS OPERATIONS - Lessons Learned in NonTechnical Language

By Norman P. Lieberman

PROCESS OPERATIONS - Lessons Learned in NonTechnical Language

ISBN 9781955578066


Chapter 1. Applying Technology at Home : Nucleate Boiling / High School Chemistry Lab / Heat Flux Limited Situation / Butane Vaporizer / Overcoming Flux-Limiting Heat Transfer Rates
Chapter 2. Applying Technology at Work : Polymer Production / Vacuum Tower / Pumparound Optimization / Air Blower / Bad Fractionation / Cooling Water Flow / Low-reflux Rate / Spent Caustic Disposal
Chapter 3. Optimizing Fractionator Efficiency: Distillation / Bubble Cap Trays / Optimizing Reflux Rate / Tray Weeping vs. Entrainment / Tray Pressure Drop vs. Flooding / Tower Temperature Profile / Color Discrimination / Closed-Loop Color Control on Earth / Gas Chromatography (G.C.) Closed-Loop Control / Spectroscopy as a Sensor / Fractionation Tray
Chapter 4. Reflux in Distillation: Vapor Pressure Limitations / Two-Stage Distillation Process / Origin of a Distillation Column / Removing the Naphtha's Tail
Chapter 5. Understanding How Distillation Trays Work:  Entrainment and Tray Efficiency / Entrainment / Foam / Reflux / Downcomer Backup / Tray Efficiency / Benefit of Valve Cap Trays
Chapter 6. Distillation: Converting Wine to Brandy, plus Basic Calculations: Relative Volatility / Solubility of Phases / Batch Distillation / Adding Distillation Stages / Mathematical Treatment
Chapter 7. Distillation Tray Efficiency: Expanding Tray Capacity in Small I.D. Towers Without Retraying / Low Tray Efficiency / The Problem with Calculating Tray Pressure Drops / Theory vs. Reality / Determining the Cause of Low Tray Fractionation Efficiency / Flooding Progresses Up a Tower / Varying Feed Rates at Constant Reflux Ratio / Back-to-Back Trays / Equilibrium Separation Stage
Chapter 8. Steam Stripping Products: What Does Wet Steam Look Like? / Effect of Pressure / Effect of Temperature / Feeding the Stripper / What Are We Trying to Accomplish with Steam Stripping? / What’s Inside a Stripper? / Packed Strippers / Tray Hole Areas / Drawing Samples / The Vacuum Tower
Chapter 9. Draft in Fired Heaters: Draft: A Function of Density Difference / Effect of Temperature on Lift / Stack Draft / Effect of Stack Height / Don’t We Need Fire to Create Draft? / Effect of Wind / The Venturi Effect
Chapter 10. Hazards in Fired Heater Operations: Dangers of Positive Feedback Loop in Fired Heaters / The Danger of Variable Wind / The Point of Absolute Combustion / Effects of Air on Visbreaker Heater Outlet Temperature / Effect of Air on Boiler Steam Generation Rate / Location of O2 Analyzer
Chapter 11. Coking in Fired Heater Tubes: Safe Shutdown Due to Tube Failure: Heater Tube Failed / Upper Explosive Limit / Snuffing Steam / Abandoning Box Steam Installation / Corrective Action / Heater Tube Coking / Mass Velocity
Chapter 12. Centrifugal Pumps: Velocity, Head, and Pressure / Conversion of Velocity to Flowing Pressure / Function of a Centrifugal Pump Impeller / Converting Velocity to Head / Relationship of Head to Discharge Pressure / Pump Curve / Positive Displacement Pumps / Seal Oil Flow to Idle Pumps
Chapter 13. Starting NPSH for Centrifugal Pumps:  The Nature of NPSH / Nozzle and Piping Losses / The Bhopal Factor / Symptoms of Cavitation / Starting NPSH Requirements / Calculating Starting NPSH / Increasing Process Flow Rate / Increasing Available Starting NPSH / Practical Steps to Minimize Cavitation
Chapter 14. How Controls Work: Temperature / Pressure / Levels / Flow / Control Valve Operation / Process Control with On-Stream Analyzers / Instrument Air
Chapter 15. Dangers for Automated Control: Refinery Process Controls / Manual Intervention / Tower Pressure Control / Temperature Control
Chapter 16. Heat Exchangers: Internal Bypassing / Vapor Binding / Flux Limits on Reboilers / Sensible Heat Transfer / Condensation and Condensate Backup / Blowing the Condensate Seal / Vapor Lock / Tube-Side Sensible Heat Transfer / Tube Roughness / Internal Bypassing
Chapter 17. Cooling Towers: Minimizing The Water Return Temperature: Cooling Towers / Distribution Decks / Preventing Distribution Deck Fouling / Cooling Tower Efficiency / Airflow / Calculating How Much Water Evaporates /Airflow Problems / Cycles of Concentration / Cooling-Water Return Temperature
Chapter 18. Cooling-Water Circuits: Maximizing Circulation Rates: Cooling-Water Systems / Water Pressure / Time, Temperature, and pH / Pressure Drop Survey / Frictional Loss in Water Piping / Hardness Deposits / Water pH Control / A Localized Restriction / Air Leaks in Suction / Approach to Wet Bulb / Washing of Hydrocarbon Liquids
Chapter 19. Motive Steam; Use in Turbines and Engines: Enthalpy and Kinetic Energy / Critical Velocity / Source of Heat / Wet Steam Effect on Turbines / Reciprocating Steam Engines
Chapter 20. Reciprocating Compression and Refrigeration: DeBottlenecking a Refrigeration Circuit / Refrigeration / Refrigeration Limit / My Home Air-Conditioner / Altering the Refrigerant Composition / Low Compressor Suction Pressure Limit
Chapter 21. Hydraulics: Converting Potential Energy into Kinetic Energy / Frictional Losses / Variations in Orifice coefficients / Centrifugal Pump Impeller and Volute / Pressure Recovery from Control Valves / Pressure Drop Surveys
Chapter 22. Pressure and Pressure Drop in Pipes: Water Pressure / Pressure Drop / Pressure to Heat / Valves and Elbows / Converting Pressure Back to Height / Converting Water Pressure to Velocity / Frictional Losses in Piping / Using Pressure Drop Correlations
Chapter 23. Vacuum System and Vacuum Surface Condenser Problems: Motive Steam Nozzle Malfunctions / Source of Silicates in Steam / Motive Steam Pressure / Seal Drum Problems / Air Leaks / Boot Quench Exchanger Leak / Velocity vs. Pressure in Steam Ejector / Vacuum Tower Surface Condenser / Surface Condenser Air Baffle / Cooling Water Inlet Location / Third-Stage Surface Condenser
Chapter 24. Corrosion: Origin of HCl in Refineries / Preventing Corrosion / Reformer Hydrogen / Carbonic Acid / Other Corrosive Agents / Significant Corrosion Failures
Chapter 25. Vessel Failure Due to Hydrogen Attack: Non-Condensable Vent / Origin of Hydrogen Inside Vessels and Heat Exchangers / Examples of Hydrogen-Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking
Chapter 26. Energy Release by Combustion:  Engine Horsepower / Air Temperature Affects Horsepower / Effect of Elevation / Effect of Moisture / Compressing Combustion Air / Fired Heaters / Natural Gas-Fired Compressors
Chapter 27.

Case Histories: Avoiding Death and Disaster in Process Units: Raffinate Splitter Explosion / LPG Amine Extraction Tower Failure / Failure of Catalytic Cracking Unit / Bhopal Disaster / Death by Nitrogen  

Chapter 28. Basic Safety Considerations: Autoignition / Nitrogen / Hydrogen Sulfide / Pyrophoric Iron / Level Indication / Flooded Firebox / Steam Turbine Over-Pressure / Steam Turbine Over-Speed Trip / Water and Corrosion / Color as a Temperature Indication / Steam Condensate Drainage / Compressor Surge
Chapter 29. Process Plant Operations and Global Warming: What’s to Be Done? / Correct Use of VFD Motors: Driving Centrifugal Pumps / Excess Heater O2 / Distillation / Steam Turbines

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