Process Improvement Engineering, Consultants and Engineers An Affiliate of:
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5000 W. Esplanade
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By Norman P. Lieberman

How to Reuse, Re-purpose, and Retrofit Existing Process Equipment

ISBN 978-0-470-58794-2


Chapter 1. Expanding Fractionator and Compressor Capacity: re-use of existing fractionator / changing tray deck panels / alternates to new compressor / keeping compressor rotor clean / calculating liquid injection rates to compressor
Chapter 2. Vacuum Tower Expansion: entrainment velocity limitations / missing tray deck manways / heater draft limitation / improving ejector performance / velocity steam in heater passes
Chapter 3.

Natural Draft Fired Heaters: control excess air / oxygen and combustible analysers / improving air-fuel mixing / convective section air leaks / air preheater leaks / indirect air preheat

Chapter 4. Crude Pre-Flash Towers: pre-flash tower flooding / energy saving with pre-flash towers / capacity benefits / pre-flash tower external reflux
Chapter 5. Amine Regeneration and Sulfur Recovery: amine capacity expansion / sulfur plant capacity expansion / rich amine flash drum design / cascaded seal legs / sulfur recovery from sour water stripper off-gas / acid gas of high carbon dioxide content / sulfur plant oxygen enrichment
Chapter 6.

Treating and Drying Hydrocarbons: jet fuel treating / salt dryer operation / water-washing sodium naphthenates from jet fuel / pipe distributor design / treating sour naphtha / converting mercaptans to disulfides

Chapter 7. Minimizing Process Water Consumption: two-stage wastewater stripper / steam condensate recovery / condensate drum balance line location / water hammer / measuring condensate recovery / cooling tower cycles of concentration
Chapter 8. Incremental Expansion Design Concept: reprocessing waste lube oil / vacuum tower design / wash oil grid coking / vapor horn design in vacuum towers / stripping tray efficiency / precondenser fouling / pump NPSH limit in vacuum service / exchanger fouling in waste oil service / transfer line sonic velocity
Chapter 9.

Improving Fractionator Efficiency in Complex Fractionators: pre-flash tower concept / intermediate reflux / stripping tray efficiency / maximizing diesel recovery from crude / picket wiers / adjusting pump-arounds / pressure optimization

Chapter 10.

Increasing Centrifugal Pump Capacity and Efficiency: hydraulic limitations / worn impeller-to-case clearances / Impeller wear ring / upgrading impeller size / marginal cavitation / viscosity effects on efficiency / NPSH limited condition

Chapter 11.

Eliminating Process Control Valves Using Variable-Speed Drivers: frequency control motors / eliminating control valves on pump discharge / direct speed control of steam turbine / variable-speed compressors / spill-backs waste energy / calculating incentive for variable-speed drivers / floating tower pressure control

Chapter 12. Expanding Refrigeration Capacity: centrifugal compressor head vs. flow curve / calculating compression work / horsepower vs. suction pressure limited / effect of increasing suction pressure / reducing refrigeration condenser fouling / effect of noncondensibles / condensate back-up in condenser
Chapter 13. Oversizing Equipment Pitfalls: amine H2S scrubber / optimizing number of trays in absorbers / consequences of overdesign / use of demister in knockout drum / low demister velocity promotes mist entrainment
Chapter 14.

Optimizing Use of Steam Pressure to Minimize Consumption of Energy: preserving the potential of steam to do work / power recovery from steam to a reboiler / use of the Mollier diagram / cogeneration plants / extracting work from reboiler steam using existing equipment / understanding thermodynamics of flowing steam / steam turbine efficiency checklist

Chapter 15. Expanding Compressor Capacity and Efficiency: reciprocating compressors / pulsation dampener plates / adjustable head-end unloaders / natural gas engines / axial compressor / rotor fouling of axial air compressor / centrifugal compressors / cleaning centrifugal compressor rotor
Chapter 16.

Vapor-Liquid Separator Entrainment Problems: effect of foam on indicated liquid levels / hydrogen-heavy gas oil separators / foam induced carry-over / enhancing de-entrainment rates / vapor distribution aids de-entrainment

Chapter 17.

Retrofitting Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers for Greater Efficiency: running refinery slops without fouling / floating suction in charge tanks / exchanger online spalling /effect of feed interruptions / tube velocity and surface roughness /shell-side seal strips /cooling high-viscosity fluids / expanding water cooler capacity / hydrocarbon losses to cooling towers

Chapter 18. Reducing Sulfur and Hydrocarbon Emissions: sulfur plant waste heat boiler modifications/ hydrocarbon leaks in seawater cooling systems / incinerator back-fire in sulfur plant main reaction furnace / loss of draft due to air leaks / global emissions perspective
Chapter 19. Hydrocarbon Leaks to the Environment: measuring leaks through valves / fixing leaking valves on-stream / detecting leaking relief valves / on-stream repair of leaking relief valves / measuring flows in flare lines / leaks into cooling water / air cooler leaks / valve stem packing / leaking pump mechanical seal and improper use of seal flush / fixing weld leaks on-stream
Chapter 20.

Composition-Induced Flooding in Packed Towers: fluid cracking unit fractionator expansion / flooding of slurry oil pump-around sections / fluid cracking unit fractionator vapor line quench / multipump piping stress analysis / perception vs. reality in process design

Chapter 21.

Maintenance for Longer Run Lengths: sulfuric acid regeneration / importance of reactor insulation / on-stream piping repairs / preserving pump mechanical seals / concept of avoiding unit shutdowns

Chapter 22. Instrument Malfunctions: control valve loss due to instrument air pressure signal / stuck flow control valve stem / mislocated liquid-level tap / reducing load to vacuum system by correcting false level indication
Chapter 23.

Summary Checklist for Reuse of Process Equipment: fired heaters / heat exchangers / fin-fan air coolers / distillation tower trays / vapor-liquid separators / centrifugal pumps / fixed-bed reactors / electric motors / gas and steam turbines / reciprocating and centrifugal compressors / air blowers / water-hydrocarbon separators / overcoming utility system limits

Chapter 24. Water-Hydrocarbon Separation:Corrosive Effects of Water: water-oil separators / corrosive elements from cracking plants / water trapped in strippers / current CO2 levels / environmental overview

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